Region | Realm
The Afrotropics is one of the world’s major biogeographical realms with five major subrealm divisions based on the Bioregions 2023 framework—Southern Afrotropics, Sub-Equatorial Afrotropics, Equatorial Afrotropics, Madagascar & East African Coast, and Sub-Saharan Afrotropics—containing 24 bioregions in total. The Southern Afrotropics subrealm has six bioregions, including the Karoo and Kalahari drylands, and incorporates the southern tip of Africa, a Mediterranean biome, and one of the most biodiverse floristic regions in the world with over 9,000 endemic plant species. The Madagascar & East African Coast subrealm contains the continent’s forested eastern coastline and adjoining marine areas and islands in the Indian Ocean, including Madagascar, one of the most biodiverse and the most threatened landscapes on the planet. The island is home to over 200,000 species, half of which are found nowhere else in the world. The Sub-Equatorial Afrotropics subrealm is defined by one bioregion containing 20 woodland and grassland ecoregions, including the Serengeti, host to one of the largest mammal migrations in the world. The Equatorial Afrotropics subrealm has seven bioregions dominated by the Congolian forests and forest savannas, extending westward from the Gulf of Guinea and including large mangroves along the coast. The Sub-Saharan Afrotropics has five bioregions, with the Sahel Acacia Savannas spanning the entire width of the continent.