Reports and Publications

  • Priorities for protected area expansion so nations can meet their Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework commitments

    Priorities for protected area expansion so nations can meet their Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework commitments

    Authors: James E. M. Watson, Ruben Venegas-Li, Hedley Grantham, Nigel Dudley, Sue Stolton, Madhu Rao, Stephen Woodley, Marc Hockings, Karl Burkart, Jeremy S. Simmonds, Laura J. Sonter, Rachakonda Sreekar, Hugh P. Possingham, Michelle Ward

    Publishers: Integrative Conservation

    Year: 2023

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    The authors of this paper lay out six principles that guide governments to achieve a high-quality protected area network, providing the best chance of halting and reversing biodiversity loss while upholding the rights of Indigenous Peoples and local communities.

  • Indigenous Peoples’ lands are threatened by industrial development; conversion risk assessment reveals need to support Indigenous stewardship

    Indigenous Peoples’ lands are threatened by industrial development; conversion risk assessment reveals need to support Indigenous stewardship

    Authors: Christina M. Kennedy, Brandie Fariss, James R. Oakleaf, Julia E. Fa, Sharon Baruch-Mordo, Joseph Kiesecker

    Publishers: One Earth CellPress

    Year: 2023

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    Indigenous Peoples’ lands are important for conservation and socio-ecological well-being. Industrial development threatens these lands, but the magnitude and risk remain unclear. Here we employ a global index comprised of rights, representation, and capital indicators to assess conversion vulnerability and explore possible solutions. We find that almost 60% of Indigenous Peoples’ lands are threatened, and among the 37 countries with the highest threat, there are multiple vulnerabilities that increase the risk of conversion. To avoid or mitigate risk to both people and nature, it will be crucial to support Indigenous Peoples’ self-determination, rights, and leadership.

  • Trophic rewilding can expand natural climate solutions

    Trophic rewilding can expand natural climate solutions

    Authors: Oswald J. Schmitz, Magnus Sylvén, Trisha B. Atwood, Elisabeth S. Bakker, Fabio Berzaghi, Jedediah F. Brodie, Joris P. G. M. Cromsigt, Andrew B. Davies, Shawn J. Leroux, Frans J. Schepers, Felisa A. Smith, Sari Stark, Jens-Christian Svenning, Andrew Tilker & Henni Ylänne

    Publishers: Nature Climate Change

    Year: 2023

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    Natural climate solutions are being advanced to arrest climate warming by protecting and enhancing carbon capture and storage in plants, soils, and sediments in ecosystems. These solutions are viewed as having the ancillary benefit of protecting habitats and landscapes to conserve animal species diversity. However, this reasoning undervalues the role animals play in controlling the carbon cycle. This paper presents scientific evidence showing that protecting and restoring wild animals and their functional roles can enhance natural carbon capture and storage. The authors call for new thinking that includes the restoration and conservation of wild animals and their ecosystem roles as a key component of natural climate solutions that can enhance the ability to prevent climate warming beyond 1.5 °C.

  • The Land Gap Report

    The Land Gap Report

    Authors: Kate Dooley, Heather Keith, Anne Larson, Georgina Catacora-Vargas

    Publishers:

    Year: 2022

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    Governments’ over-reliance on carbon removals could push ecosystems, land rights, and food security to the brink, with new land area equivalent to 50 percent of the world’s croplands currently being required to meet targets. Climate pledges should focus on protecting and restoring existing ecosystems with carbon benefits. 

  • The Carbon Bankroll

    The Carbon Bankroll

    The Climate Impact and Untapped Power of Corporate Cash

    Authors: Climate Safe Lending Network (CSLN), The Outdoor Policy Outfit (TOPO), and BankFWD

    Publishers:

    Year: 2022

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    New research makes it possible to calculate the emissions generated by a company’s cash and investments (cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities). This research illuminates that this previously hidden emissions source is substantial. For some of the world’s largest companies, including Alphabet, Meta, Microsoft, and Salesforce, their cash and investments are their largest source of emissions. In fact, for Alphabet, Meta, and PayPal, the emissions generated by their cash and investments (financed emissions) exceed all their other emissions combined

  • Mature and old-growth forests contribute to large-scale conservation targets in the conterminous United States

    Mature and old-growth forests contribute to large-scale conservation targets in the conterminous United States

    Authors: Dominick A. DellaSala​​, Brendan Mackey, Patrick Norman, Carly Campbell, Patrick J. Comer, Cyril F. Kormos, Heather Keith​,​ and Brendan Rogers

    Publishers: Frontiers

    Year: 2022

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    Mature and old-growth forests (MOG) of the conterminous United States collectively support exceptional levels of biodiversity but have declined substantially from logging and development. National-scale proposals to protect 30 and 50% of all lands and waters are useful in assessing MOG conservation targets given the precarious status of these forests. We present the first coast to coast spatially explicit MOG assessment based on three structural development measures—canopy height, canopy cover, and above-ground living biomass to assess relative maturity.

  • An ecoregion-based approach to restoring the world's intact large mammal assemblages

    An ecoregion-based approach to restoring the world's intact large mammal assemblages

    Authors: Carly Vynne, Joe Gosling, Calum Maney, Eric Dinerstein, Andy T. L. Lee, Neil D. Burgess, Néstor Fernández, Sanjiv Fernando, Harshini Jhala, Yadvendradev Jhala, Reed F. Noss, Michael F. Proctor, Jan Schipper, José F. González-Maya, Anup R. Joshi, David Olson, William J. Ripple, Jens-Christian Svenning

    Publishers: Ecography

    Year: 2022

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    Assemblages of large mammal species play a disproportionate role in the structure and composition of natural habitats. Loss of these assemblages destabilizes natural systems, while their recovery can restore ecological integrity. Here we take an ecoregion-based approach to identify landscapes that retain their historically present large mammal assemblages, and map ecoregions where reintroduction of 1–3 species could restore intact assemblages. Intact mammal assemblages occur across more than one-third of the 730 terrestrial ecoregions where large mammals were historically present, and 22% of these ecoregions retain complete assemblages across > 20% of the ecoregion area. Twenty species, if reintroduced or allowed to recolonize through improved connectivity, can increase the area of the world containing intact large mammal assemblages by 54% (11 116 000 km2). Each of these species have at least two large, intact habitat areas (> 10 000 km2) in a given ecoregion. Timely integration of recovery efforts for large mammals strengthens area-based targets being considered under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  • Amazonia Against the Clock

    Amazonia Against the Clock

    A Regional Assessment on Where and How to Protect 80% by 2025

    Authors: Quintanilla, Marlene, Alicia Guzmán León, Carmen Josse

    Publishers: This report has been prepared with the support of the coalition of the Initiative “Amazonia for Life: Protect 80% by 2025”: AVAAZ, Wild Heritage, One Earth, and Amazon Watch.

    Year: 2022

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    'Amazonia Against the Clock,' a groundbreaking report organized by COICA and published by Indigenous leaders and researchers, presents new data on deforestation and reaffirms the critical role of Indigenous peoples in protecting 80% of the Amazon by 2025.

  • Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals Part 2

    Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals Part 2

    Science-based Target Setting for the Finance industry — Net-Zero Sectoral 1.5˚C Pathways for Real Economy Sectors

    Editors: Sven Teske

    Publishers: Springer Nature

    Year: 2022

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    The One Earth Climate Model (OECM) began as a research project supported by One Earth between the University of Technology Sydney, the German Aerospace Centre, and the University of Melbourne in 2017. They were tasked with developing a detailed 1.5˚C GHG trajectory for ten world regions without the continued use of fossil fuels or unproven technologies like carbon capture and storage. The results of the first model made it clear that it is still possible to limit warming to 1.5˚C with a rapid transition to 100% renewable energy sources. However, the model did not yet have the granularity the financial sector needed to guide and benchmark net-zero investments.

    The book, Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals Part 2: Science-based Target Setting for the Finance Industry — Net-Zero Sectoral 1.5˚C Pathways for Real Economy Sectors, is designed as a continuation of this group’s 2019 first edition, which focused on country-specific energy pathways. Decarbonization pathways have been developed for countries, regions, and communities, but never before for industry sectors in a detailed way. While the book consists of 400 pages of dense methodologies and calculations, its topline message is clear; in the words of the lead author Sven Teske, “ We can limit global warming to 1.5˚C with the technology pathways we describe... I would call it an action plan to save the future for our children and their children."

  • Limiting Global Warming to 1.5 °C

    Limiting Global Warming to 1.5 °C

    Renewable Target Mapping for the G20

    Authors: Teske, S., Briggs, C., Miyake, S

    Publishers: The Foundations Platform F20

    Year: 2022

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    The Renewable Target Mapping for the G20 provides an overview of the current state of renewable energy policy in G20 countries and outlines key recommendations for achieving the renewable power target of 70% by 2030. The report emphasizes the importance of setting clear and measurable targets for renewable energy and removing barriers to investment in renewable energy. It also highlights the need for collaboration among civil society, the business and financial sectors, think tanks, and politics to promote sustainable development. The report concludes by calling for increased resilience to the impacts of climate change and for actions that reflect equity and the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities.

  • Untapped Opportunities for Climate Action

    Untapped Opportunities for Climate Action

    An Assessment of Food Systems in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

    Authors: Global Alliance for the Future of Food

    Publishers:

    Year: 2022

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    Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) — national climate actions at the heart of the Paris Agreement — are a strategic opportunity for governments to integrate a food systems approach across their policies and programs in the name of climate mitigation. As the designated policy home where Paris signatories present how they’re going to reduce their emissions, the NDCs serve a collective way to track global progress on climate goals and signal whether global warming can stay well below the threshold of 1.5°C (2.7°F).

  • Animating the Carbon Cycle

    Animating the Carbon Cycle

    Supercharging Ecosystem Carbon Sinks to Meet the 1.5°C Climate Target

    Authors: Daniel Allen, Oswald Schmitz, Magnus Sylven

    Publishers: The Global Rewilding Alliance

    Year: 2022

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    Climate change is commonly viewed as causing collateral damage to biodiversity. Wildlife species, particularly animals, are widely perceived as unwitting victims - passengers trapped aboard a ship on an ill-fated voyage. In reality, animals play a critical role in determining the course of the climate ship. From elephants to grasshoppers, sharks to sea otters, species of all descriptions, habitats, and climate zones impact global carbon exchange in different ways. Within a complex web of interactions, some have a greater impact than others, while the impact of the same species may vary from ecosystem to ecosystem. This report provides 10 case studies that showcase the diversity and complexity of the relationship between animals and the global carbon cycle, both in terrestrial and marine environments. They also demonstrate just how important it is to protect and restore wildlife populations as we look to address climate change.

  • Dynamic modelling shows substantial contribution of ecosystem restoration to climate change mitigation

    Dynamic modelling shows substantial contribution of ecosystem restoration to climate change mitigation

    Authors:

    Publishers:

    Year: 2021

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  • The Fibers Roadmap

    The Fibers Roadmap

    Integrated Capital Opportunities to Support Revitalization of US-Grown Fiber, Textiles, and Leather

    Authors: Sarah Kelley, Jenny O' Connor, and Calla Rose Ostrander

    Publishers: Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems Funders (SAFSF)

    Year: 2020

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    Funders, impact investors, and integrated capital practitioners currently have the opportunity to catalyze momentum and reform in the US fiber and textile industry. A coordinated, strategic roadmap is critical to make the best use of integrated philanthropic and investment support. This research project drew on more than 60 interviews with fiber farmers and ranchers; processing businesses along the supply chain (mills, tanneries, etc.); brands and other supply chain experts; and funders and investors. Findings from these interviews have been synthesized and distilled into a seven-year financial Roadmap identifying five key Gaps and Levers where integrated philanthropic and investment capital would have the greatest impact in rebuilding the “missing middle” of the supply chain. In addition to the Roadmap, don't miss the 12 case studies highlighted in the report, which represent just a small slice of the innovative, place-based fiber system businesses that exist or are emerging across the country. Each one offers opportunities for funders and investors to deploy integrated capital approaches.

  • Banking on Climate Chaos

    Banking on Climate Chaos

    Fossil Fuel Finance Report 2022

    Authors: The report is prepared by Rainforest Action Network, BankTrack, Indigenous Environmental Network, Oil Change International, Reclaim Finance, Sierra Club, and urgewald, and endorsed by 500 organizations around the world.

    Publishers:

    Year:

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    The 2022 Banking on Climate Chaos report is the most comprehensive analysis on fossil fuel banking produced to date. This 13th annual version of the report continues to investigate the fossil fuel financing and policies of the world’s 60 largest banks. Fossil fuel financing from the world’s 60 largest banks has reached nearly USD $4.6 trillion in the six years since the adoption of the Paris Agreement, with $742 billion in 2021 alone. It also highlights case studies of bank financing for destructive fossil fuel projects and companies around the world.

  • 100% Renewable Energy for Costa Rica: A Decarbonization Roadmap

    100% Renewable Energy for Costa Rica: A Decarbonization Roadmap

    Authors:

    Publishers:

    Year: 2020

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  • Mapping Nature for People and Planet

    Mapping Nature for People and Planet

    Authors:

    Publishers:

    Year: 2020

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  • Carbon removals from nature restoration are no substitute for steep emission reductions

    Carbon removals from nature restoration are no substitute for steep emission reductions

    Authors: Kate Dooley, Zebedee Nicholls, Malte Meinshausen

    Publishers: One Earth Cell

    Year: 2022

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    The role of nature restoration in mitigating the impacts of climate change is receiving increasing attention, yet the mitigation potential is often assessed in terms of carbon removal rather than the ability to meet temperature goals, such as those outlined in the Paris Agreement. Here, we estimate the global removal potential from nature restoration constrained by a “responsible development” framework and the contribution this would make to a 1.5°C temperature limit. Our constrained restoration options result in a median of 103 GtC (5%–95% range of −91 to 196 GtC) in cumulative removals between 2020 and 2100. When combined with deep-decarbonization scenarios, our restoration scenario briefly exceeds 1.5°C before declining to between 1.25°C and 1.5°C by 2100 (median, 50% probability). We conclude that additional carbon sequestration via nature restoration is unlikely to be done quickly enough to notably reduce the global peak temperatures expected in the next few decades. Land restoration is an important option for tackling climate change but cannot compensate for delays in reducing fossil fuel emissions.

  • Paper Tiger

    Paper Tiger

    Why the EU’s RED II biomass sustainability criteria fail forests and the climate

    Authors: Mary S. Booth, Ben Mitchell

    Publishers: Partnership for Policy Integrity (PFPI)

    Year: 2020

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    This report by the Partnership for Policy Integrity (PFPI) provides a scientific and legal analysis of why “sustainability” protections in the EU’s recast Renewable Energy Directive (RED II) provide cover for continued logging, GHG emissions, and forest damage from biomass harvesting.

  • 100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

    100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

    Authors: Mark Z. Jacobson, Mark A. Delucchi, Zack A. F. Bauer, Jingfan Wang, Eric Weiner, Alexander S. Yachanin

    Publishers: Joule

    Year: 2017

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  • Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures

    Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures

    Authors:

    Publishers: IUCN

    Year: 2019

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  • A “Global Safety Net” to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth’s climate

    A “Global Safety Net” to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth’s climate

    Authors: Eric Dinerstein, Anup Joshi, Carly Vynne, Andy Lee, Félix Pharand-Deschênes, Manno Andrade França, Sanjiv Fernando, Tanya Birch, Karl Burkart, Gregory Asner, David Olson

    Publishers: Science Advances

    Year: 2020

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    Global strategies to halt the dual crises of biodiversity loss and climate change are often formulated separately, even though they are interdependent and risk failure if pursued in isolation. The Global Safety Net maps how expanded nature conservation addresses both overarching threats. We identify 50% of the terrestrial realm that, if conserved, would reverse further biodiversity loss, prevent CO2 emissions from land conversion, and enhance natural carbon removal. This framework shows that, beyond the 15.1% land area currently protected, 35.3% of land area is needed to conserve additional sites of particular importance for biodiversity and stabilize the climate. Fifty ecoregions and 20 countries contribute disproportionately to proposed targets. Indigenous lands overlap extensively with the Global Safety Net. Conserving the Global Safety Net could support public health by reducing the potential for zoonotic diseases like COVID-19 from emerging in the future.

  • Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals

    Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals

    Global and Regional 100% Renewable Energy Scenarios with Non-energy GHG Pathways for +1.5°C and +2°C

    Authors:

    Publishers: Springer Nature

    Year: 2018

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  • Financing conservation by valuing carbon services produced by wild animals

    Financing conservation by valuing carbon services produced by wild animals

    Authors: Fabio Berzaghi, Ralph Chami, Thomas Cosimano, and Connel Fullenkamp. Edited by Geoffrey Heal

    Publishers: PNAS

    Year: 2022

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    The involvement of financial markets is critical to delivering effective and long-lasting solutions to mitigate climate change and reverse biodiversity loss. However, financial markets have not invested in ecosystem services because these are often valued based on non-market prices, which deter investments. Based on existing carbon market prices, we value the carbon services produced by forest elephants and show that wild animals’ carbon services are valuable enough to attract investors. This framework would facilitate the financing of conservation programs and local communities and broaden the portfolio of nature-based solutions to mitigate climate change.

  • Nature for Water, Nature for Life

    Nature for Water, Nature for Life

    Nature-based Solutions for Achieving the Global Goals

    Authors: Nigel Dudley, Marianne Kettunen, Jamison Ervin, Sarah Garwood, Amanda Bielawski, Anne Virnig

    Publishers: UNDP Global Programme on Nature for Development

    Year: 2018

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    This report emphasizes the transformative potential of nature-based solutions in global water management strategies, outlining their cost-effectiveness and broad applicability for over 3,200 cities. These strategies, encompassing protection, restoration, and sustainable management of ecosystems like forests and wetlands, are crucial for enhancing water quality, ensuring water availability, and protecting biodiversity. Despite the proven benefits and substantial investments in restoration projects, the adoption of nature-based solutions remains insufficient. Traditional engineering approaches often overshadow these sustainable practices in water management policies. However, various success stories of large-scale restorations and community-led initiatives underscore the multifaceted benefits of nature-based strategies, advocating for their integration into national water plans for improved water security and overall environmental resilience.

  • 2020 Vision

    2020 Vision

    Why you should see the fossil fuel peak coming

    Authors: Carbon Tracker

    Publishers: Carbon Tracker

    Year: 2018

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    The peak in fossil fuel demand will have a dramatic impact on financial markets in the 2020s. The global energy system is transitioning from a system mainly based on fossil fuels to one mainly based on renewable energy sources. The shift will involve near-term peaking of fossil fuel demand, an S curve of renewable growth, and the endgame for fossil fuel demand.

  • New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding

    New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding

    Authors: Scott A. Kulp, Benjamin H. Strauss

    Publishers: Nature Communications

    Year: 2019

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    This research indicates a tripling in global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding due to updated elevation data. Traditional methods underrepresent the potential impact of flooding, highlighting areas previously thought to be safe. Advanced satellite data is instrumental in identifying the true risk by providing more accurate elevation information. Over 300 million people globally are now estimated to be living on land at risk of annual flooding by 2050. Technology plays a crucial role in adaptation strategies, necessitating upgraded infrastructure and emergency protocols. The findings emphasize the urgent need for international cooperation and action to mitigate climate change impacts. Better data accuracy is imperative for future planning, requiring continual updates and refinements in elevation mapping.

  • A Global Deal For Nature

    A Global Deal For Nature

    Guiding principles, milestones, and targets

    Authors: Eric Dinerstein, Carly Vynne, Enric Sala, Anup Joshi, Sanjiv Fernando, Juan Mayorga, David Olson, Greg Asner, Neil Burgess, Karl Burkart, Reed Noss, Yping Zhang, Tanya Birch, Nathan Hahn, Lucas Joppa

    Publishers: Science Advances

    Year: 2019

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    The Global Deal for Nature (GDN) is a time-bound, science-driven plan to save the diversity and abundance of life on Earth. Pairing the GDN and the Paris Climate Agreement would avoid catastrophic climate change, conserve species, and secure essential ecosystem services. New findings give urgency to this union: Less than half of the terrestrial realm is intact, yet conserving all native ecosystems—coupled with energy transition measures—will be required to remain below a 1.5°C rise in average global temperature. The GDN targets 30% of Earth to be formally protected and an additional 20% designated as climate stabilization areas, by 2030, to stay below 1.5°C. We highlight the 67% of terrestrial ecoregions that can meet 30% protection, thereby reducing extinction threats and carbon emissions from natural reservoirs. Freshwater and marine targets included here extend the GDN to all realms and provide a pathway to ensuring a more livable biosphere.

  • Missing Pathways to 1.5°C: The role of the land sector in ambitious climate action

    Missing Pathways to 1.5°C: The role of the land sector in ambitious climate action

    Climate ambition that safeguards land rights, biodiversity and food sovereignty

    Authors: Kate Dooley, Doreen Stabinsky, Kelly Stone, Shefali Sharma, Teresa Anderson, Doug Gurian-Sherman, Peter Riggs

    Publishers: CLARA (Climate Land Ambition and Rights Alliance)

    Year: 2018

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