Reports and Publications

  • 100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

    100% Clean and Renewable Wind, Water, and Sunlight All-Sector Energy Roadmaps for 139 Countries of the World

    Authors: Mark Z. Jacobson, Mark A. Delucchi, Zack A. F. Bauer, Jingfan Wang, Eric Weiner, Alexander S. Yachanin

    Publishers: Joule

    Year: 2017

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  • 2020 Vision

    2020 Vision

    Why you should see the fossil fuel peak coming

    Authors: Carbon Tracker

    Publishers: Carbon Tracker

    Year: 2018

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    The peak in fossil fuel demand will have a dramatic impact on financial markets in the 2020s. The global energy system is transitioning from a system mainly based on fossil fuels to one mainly based on renewable energy sources. The shift will involve near-term peaking of fossil fuel demand, an S curve of renewable growth, and the endgame for fossil fuel demand.

  • Missing Pathways to 1.5°C: The role of the land sector in ambitious climate action

    Missing Pathways to 1.5°C: The role of the land sector in ambitious climate action

    Climate ambition that safeguards land rights, biodiversity and food sovereignty

    Authors: Kate Dooley, Doreen Stabinsky, Kelly Stone, Shefali Sharma, Teresa Anderson, Doug Gurian-Sherman, Peter Riggs

    Publishers: CLARA (Climate Land Ambition and Rights Alliance)

    Year: 2018

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  • Nature for Water, Nature for Life

    Nature for Water, Nature for Life

    Nature-based solutions for achieving the Global Goals

    Authors: Nigel Dudley, Marianne Kettunen, Jamison Ervin, Sarah Garwood, Amanda Bielawski, Anne Virnig

    Publishers: United Nations Development Programme

    Year: 2018

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  • The Land Gap Report

    The Land Gap Report

    Authors: Kate Dooley, Heather Keith, Anne Larson, Georgina Catacora-Vargas

    Publishers:

    Year: 2022

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    Governments’ over-reliance on carbon removals could push ecosystems, land rights, and food security to the brink, with new land area equivalent to 50 percent of the world’s croplands currently being required to meet targets. Climate pledges should focus on protecting and restoring existing ecosystems with carbon benefits. 

  • Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals Part 2

    Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals Part 2

    Science-based Target Setting for the Finance industry — Net-Zero Sectoral 1.5˚C Pathways for Real Economy Sectors

    Editors: Sven Teske

    Publishers: Springer Nature

    Year: 2022

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    Presents detailed net-zero greenhouse gas emission pathways by 2050. Offers non-energy greenhouse gas mitigation scenarios. Provides missing link between target setting for specific industries and the measures to achieve them.

  • Amazonia Against the Clock

    Amazonia Against the Clock

    A Regional Assessment on Where and How to Protect 80% by 2025

    Authors: Quintanilla, Marlene, Alicia Guzmán León, Carmen Josse

    Publishers: This report has been prepared with the support of the coalition of the Initiative “Amazonia for Life: Protect 80% by 2025”: AVAAZ, Wild Heritage, One Earth, and Amazon Watch.

    Year: 2022

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    'Amazonia Against the Clock,' a groundbreaking report organized by COICA and published by Indigenous leaders and researchers, presents new data on deforestation and reaffirms the critical role of Indigenous peoples in protecting 80% of the Amazon by 2025.

  • Mature and old-growth forests contribute to large-scale conservation targets in the conterminous United States

    Mature and old-growth forests contribute to large-scale conservation targets in the conterminous United States

    Authors: Dominick A. DellaSala​​, Brendan Mackey, Patrick Norman, Carly Campbell, Patrick J. Comer, Cyril F. Kormos, Heather Keith​,​ and Brendan Rogers

    Publishers: Frontiers

    Year: 2022

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    Mature and old-growth forests (MOG) of the conterminous United States collectively support exceptional levels of biodiversity but have declined substantially from logging and development. National-scale proposals to protect 30 and 50% of all lands and waters are useful in assessing MOG conservation targets given the precarious status of these forests. We present the first coast to coast spatially explicit MOG assessment based on three structural development measures—canopy height, canopy cover, and above-ground living biomass to assess relative maturity.

  • The Carbon Bankroll

    The Carbon Bankroll

    The Climate Impact and Untapped Power of Corporate Cash

    Authors: Climate Safe Lending Network (CSLN), The Outdoor Policy Outfit (TOPO), and BankFWD

    Publishers:

    Year: 2022

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    New research makes it possible to calculate the emissions generated by a company’s cash and investments (cash, cash equivalents, and marketable securities). This research illuminates that this previously hidden emissions source is substantial. For some of the world’s largest companies, including Alphabet, Meta, Microsoft, and Salesforce, their cash and investments are their largest source of emissions. In fact, for Alphabet, Meta, and PayPal, the emissions generated by their cash and investments (financed emissions) exceed all their other emissions combined

  • An ecoregion-based approach to restoring the world's intact large mammal assemblages

    An ecoregion-based approach to restoring the world's intact large mammal assemblages

    Authors: Carly Vynne, Joe Gosling, Calum Maney, Eric Dinerstein, Andy T. L. Lee, Neil D. Burgess, Néstor Fernández, Sanjiv Fernando, Harshini Jhala, Yadvendradev Jhala, Reed F. Noss, Michael F. Proctor, Jan Schipper, José F. González-Maya, Anup R. Joshi, David Olson, William J. Ripple, Jens-Christian Svenning

    Publishers: Ecography

    Year: 2022

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    Assemblages of large mammal species play a disproportionate role in the structure and composition of natural habitats. Loss of these assemblages destabilizes natural systems, while their recovery can restore ecological integrity. Here we take an ecoregion-based approach to identify landscapes that retain their historically present large mammal assemblages, and map ecoregions where reintroduction of 1–3 species could restore intact assemblages. Intact mammal assemblages occur across more than one-third of the 730 terrestrial ecoregions where large mammals were historically present, and 22% of these ecoregions retain complete assemblages across > 20% of the ecoregion area. Twenty species, if reintroduced or allowed to recolonize through improved connectivity, can increase the area of the world containing intact large mammal assemblages by 54% (11 116 000 km2). Each of these species have at least two large, intact habitat areas (> 10 000 km2) in a given ecoregion. Timely integration of recovery efforts for large mammals strengthens area-based targets being considered under the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  • Limiting Global Warming to 1.5 °C

    Limiting Global Warming to 1.5 °C

    Renewable Target Mapping for the G20

    Authors: Teske, S., Briggs, C., Miyake, S

    Publishers: The Foundations Platform F20

    Year: 2022

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  • Animating the Carbon Cycle

    Animating the Carbon Cycle

    Supercharging ecosystem carbon sinks to meet the 1.5°C climate target

    Authors: Daniel Allen, Oswald Schmitz, Magnus Sylven

    Publishers: The Global Rewilding Alliance

    Year: 2022

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    Animals influence the carbon cycle in myriad ways. Herbivores, for example, affect the exchange of carbon between ecosystems and the atmosphere through their grazing, by redistributing seeds and nutrients over vast areas of land and sea, and by trampling and compacting soils and sediments. They can have a positive impact on climate change by increasing the amount of carbon drawn down and stored in plants, preventing outbreaks of wildfire, protecting against permafrost thawing, and increasing soil and sediment-based carbon retention.

  • Carbon removals from nature restoration are no substitute for steep emission reductions

    Carbon removals from nature restoration are no substitute for steep emission reductions

    Authors: Kate Dooley, Zebedee Nicholls, Malte Meinshausen

    Publishers: One Earth Cell

    Year: 2022

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    The role of nature restoration in mitigating the impacts of climate change is receiving increasing attention, yet the mitigation potential is often assessed in terms of carbon removal rather than the ability to meet temperature goals, such as those outlined in the Paris Agreement. Here, we estimate the global removal potential from nature restoration constrained by a “responsible development” framework and the contribution this would make to a 1.5°C temperature limit. Our constrained restoration options result in a median of 103 GtC (5%–95% range of −91 to 196 GtC) in cumulative removals between 2020 and 2100. When combined with deep-decarbonization scenarios, our restoration scenario briefly exceeds 1.5°C before declining to between 1.25°C and 1.5°C by 2100 (median, 50% probability). We conclude that additional carbon sequestration via nature restoration is unlikely to be done quickly enough to notably reduce the global peak temperatures expected in the next few decades. Land restoration is an important option for tackling climate change but cannot compensate for delays in reducing fossil fuel emissions.

  • Untapped Opportunities for Climate Action

    Untapped Opportunities for Climate Action

    An Assessment of Food Systems in Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs)

    Authors: Global Alliance for the Future of Food

    Publishers:

    Year: 2022

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    Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) — national climate actions at the heart of the Paris Agreement — are a strategic opportunity for governments to integrate a food systems approach across their policies and programs in the name of climate mitigation. As the designated policy home where Paris signatories present how they’re going to reduce their emissions, the NDCs serve a collective way to track global progress on climate goals and signal whether global warming can stay well below the threshold of 1.5°C (2.7°F).

  • Dynamic modelling shows substantial contribution of ecosystem restoration to climate change mitigation

    Dynamic modelling shows substantial contribution of ecosystem restoration to climate change mitigation

    Authors:

    Publishers:

    Year: 2021

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  • Mapping Nature for People and Planet

    Mapping Nature for People and Planet

    Authors:

    Publishers:

    Year: 2020

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  • 100% Renewable Energy for Costa Rica: A Decarbonization Roadmap

    100% Renewable Energy for Costa Rica: A Decarbonization Roadmap

    Authors:

    Publishers:

    Year: 2020

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  • A “Global Safety Net” to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth’s climate

    A “Global Safety Net” to reverse biodiversity loss and stabilize Earth’s climate

    Authors: Eric Dinerstein, Anup Joshi, Carly Vynne, Andy Lee, Félix Pharand-Deschênes, Manno Andrade França, Sanjiv Fernando, Tanya Birch, Karl Burkart, Gregory Asner, David Olson

    Publishers: Science Advances

    Year: 2020

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    Global strategies to halt the dual crises of biodiversity loss and climate change are often formulated separately, even though they are interdependent and risk failure if pursued in isolation. The Global Safety Net maps how expanded nature conservation addresses both overarching threats. We identify 50% of the terrestrial realm that, if conserved, would reverse further biodiversity loss, prevent CO2 emissions from land conversion, and enhance natural carbon removal. This framework shows that, beyond the 15.1% land area currently protected, 35.3% of land area is needed to conserve additional sites of particular importance for biodiversity and stabilize the climate. Fifty ecoregions and 20 countries contribute disproportionately to proposed targets. Indigenous lands overlap extensively with the Global Safety Net. Conserving the Global Safety Net could support public health by reducing the potential for zoonotic diseases like COVID-19 from emerging in the future.

  • Paper Tiger

    Paper Tiger

    Why the EU’s RED II biomass sustainability criteria fail forests and the climate

    Authors: Mary S. Booth, Ben Mitchell

    Publishers:

    Year: 2020

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  • Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures

    Recognising and reporting other effective area-based conservation measures

    Authors:

    Publishers: IUCN

    Year: 2019

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  • New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding

    New elevation data triple estimates of global vulnerability to sea-level rise and coastal flooding

    Authors:

    Publishers: Nature

    Year: 2019

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  • Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals

    Achieving the Paris Climate Agreement Goals

    Global and Regional 100% Renewable Energy Scenarios with Non-energy GHG Pathways for +1.5°C and +2°C

    Authors:

    Publishers: Springer Nature

    Year: 2018

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  • A Global Deal For Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets

    A Global Deal For Nature: Guiding principles, milestones, and targets

    Authors: Eric DInerstein, Carly Vynne, Enric Sala, Anup Joshi, Sanjiv Fernando, Juan Mayorga, David Olson, Greg Asner, Neil Burgess, Karl Burkart, Reed Noss, Yping Zhang, Tanya Birch, Nathan Hahn, Lucas Joppa

    Publishers: Science Advances

    Year: 2019

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    The Global Deal for Nature (GDN) is a time-bound, science-driven plan to save the diversity and abundance of life on Earth. Pairing the GDN and the Paris Climate Agreement would avoid catastrophic climate change, conserve species, and secure essential ecosystem services. New findings give urgency to this union: Less than half of the terrestrial realm is intact, yet conserving all native ecosystems—coupled with energy transition measures—will be required to remain below a 1.5°C rise in average global temperature. The GDN targets 30% of Earth to be formally protected and an additional 20% designated as climate stabilization areas, by 2030, to stay below 1.5°C. We highlight the 67% of terrestrial ecoregions that can meet 30% protection, thereby reducing extinction threats and carbon emissions from natural reservoirs. Freshwater and marine targets included here extend the GDN to all realms and provide a pathway to ensuring a more livable biosphere.

  • Banking on Climate Chaos

    Banking on Climate Chaos

    Fossil Fuel Finance Report 2022

    Authors: The report is prepared by Rainforest Action Network, BankTrack, Indigenous Environmental Network, Oil Change International, Reclaim Finance, Sierra Club, and urgewald, and endorsed by 500 organizations around the world.

    Publishers:

    Year:

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    The 2022 Banking on Climate Chaos report is the most comprehensive analysis on fossil fuel banking produced to date. This 13th annual version of the report continues to investigate the fossil fuel financing and policies of the world’s 60 largest banks. Fossil fuel financing from the world’s 60 largest banks has reached nearly USD $4.6 trillion in the six years since the adoption of the Paris Agreement, with $742 billion in 2021 alone. It also highlights case studies of bank financing for destructive fossil fuel projects and companies around the world.

  • Financing conservation by valuing carbon services produced by wild animals

    Financing conservation by valuing carbon services produced by wild animals

    Authors: Fabio Berzaghi, Ralph Chami, Thomas Cosimano, and Connel Fullenkamp. Edited by Geoffrey Heal

    Publishers: PNAS

    Year: 2022

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    The involvement of financial markets is critical to delivering effective and long-lasting solutions to mitigate climate change and reverse biodiversity loss. However, financial markets have not invested in ecosystem services because these are often valued based on non-market prices, which deter investments. Based on existing carbon market prices, we value the carbon services produced by forest elephants and show that wild animals’ carbon services are valuable enough to attract investors. This framework would facilitate the financing of conservation programs and local communities and broaden the portfolio of nature-based solutions to mitigate climate change.