The Bioregions 2020 framework is organized by the world's major biogeographical realms, the broadest divisions of Earth's land surface in which ecosystems and groupings of organisms share a common evolutionary history. These roughly correspond to the major continents of the Earth but are further subdivided. For example, the Neotropical realm is divided into Central America and Southern America. One Earth utilizes these 14 realm divisions – further divided into 52 subrealms, 185 bioregions, and 844 ecoregions – as a framework to better understand the natural world that surrounds us.
Subarctic America covers most of Canada and Alaska and is the northern section of the Nearctic realm with 4 subrealms as defined in the Bioregions 2020 framework -- Greenland, Canadian Tundra, Canadian Boreal Forests, and Alaska -- containing 9 bioregions in total.
Northern America contains the majority of the Nearctic realm, spanning from southern Canada to northern Mexico and containing 6 subrealms as defined in the Bioregions 2020 framework -- Northeast American Forests, Southeast U.S. Savannas, Great Plains, American West, Mexican Drylands, and North Pacific Coast -- containing 22 bioregions in total with a diversity of biome types.
Central America is the upper section of one of the Neotropical realm with 2 major subrealms – Central America and the Caribbean -- containing 6 bioregions in total as defined in the Bioregions 2020 framework.
Southern America covers most of the Neotropical realm with 5 major subrealms -- Amazonia, Andes Mountains & Pacific Coast, South American Grasslands, Brazil Cerrado & Atlantic Coast, and Upper South America -- with 23 bioregions in total as defined in the Bioregions 2020 framework.
The Afrotropics, or Sub-Saharan Africa, is one of the world’s major biogeographical realms with 5 major subrealm divisions based on the Bioregions 2020 framework -- Southern Afrotropics, Sub-Equatorial Afrotropics, Equatorial Afrotropics, Madagascar & East African Coast, and Sub-Saharan Afrotropics -- containing 24 bioregions in total.
Subarctic Eurasia covers most of the land mass of Russia and the Nordic countries – Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland – and makes up the northern section of the Palearctic realm with 4 major subrealms as defined in the Bioregions 2020 framework -- Palearctic Tundra, Scandinavia & West Boreal Forests, Siberia & East Boreal Forests, and the Sea of Okhotsk.
Eastern Eurasia is the easternmost section of the Palearctic realm divided into 7 major subrealms – Altai-Sayan Mountains, East Asian Deserts, Himalayas & Tibetan Plateau, Mongolian Grasslands, Central East Asian Forests, Northeast Asian Forests, and Japanese Islands -- with 17 bioregions based on the Bioregions 2020 framework.
Central Eurasia makes up the interior section of the Palearctic realm with 4 major subrealms -- Kazakh Steppes & Hemiboreal Forest, Caspian Sea & Central Asian Deserts, Tien Shan Mountains, and Persian Deserts & Forests -- containing 9 bioregions in total.
Western Eurasia covers most of Europe and is the westernmost section of the Palearctic realm with 5 major subrealms -- Greater European Forests, European Mountain Forests, Black Sea Forests & Steppe, the Mediterranean, and the British Isles -- and 13 bioregions in total as defined in the Bioregions 2020 framework.
Southern Eurasia corresponds roughly with the Middle East-North Africa (MENA) region and is the southernmost section of the Palearctic with 2 major subrealms -- North Africa and the Greater Arabian Peninsula – and 5 bioregions in total as defined by the Bioregions 2020 framework.
Indomalaya is one of the world’s eight major biogeographical realms with 3 major subrealms -- the Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asian Forests, and Malaysia & Western Indonesia -- with 18 bioregions in total based on the Bioregions 2020 framework.
The Australasia realm is dominated by the Australian continent and 2 additional subrealms -- New Zealand and the Australasian Islands -- with 15 bioregions in total as defined in the Bioregions 2020 framework.
Antarctica, one of the world’s eight major biogeographical realms, is made up almost entirely of one single bioregion -- the ice-covered land mass, coastal tundra, and sea ice of the main continent -- which is nearly twice the size of Australia.
Oceania is one of the world’s major biogeographical realms with 11 island bioregions stretching across the Pacific Ocean, including Polynesia, Micronesia, and Hawaii.
Discover the Bioregions
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