Region | Realm
Subarctic America covers most of Canada and Alaska. It is the northern section of the Nearctic realm with four subrealms as defined in the Bioregions 2023 framework—Greenland, Canadian Tundra, Canadian Boreal Forests, and Alaska—containing nine bioregions in total. Greenland consists of a single bioregion defined by ice with coastal tundra, and the Canadian Tundra is also defined as one large bioregion. The Canadian Boreal Forests subrealm contains four distinct bioregions, including the expansive Canadian Shield Forests. Alaska contains three bioregions, including the Far Northern Pacific Coast, which combines temperate conifer forests and coastal ice fields and is home to grizzly bears, wolves, puffins, salmon, and orca whales.