Region | Realm
Western Eurasia covers most of Europe and is the westernmost section of the Palearctic realm with five major subrealms—Greater European Forests, European Mountain Forests, Black Sea Forests & Steppe, the Mediterranean, and the Anglo-Celtic Isles—and 13 bioregions in total as defined in the Bioregions 2023 framework. The Greater European Forests cover most of the European mainland, with a group of European Mountain Forests extending from Switzerland to the western edge of the Black Sea. To the east, the vast Pontic Steppe defines the Black Sea Forests & Steppe subrealm, which includes southern Russia and most of Turkey. In the south, three bioregions span the length of the Mediterranean—from Spain, Italy, and Greece to western Turkey, Lebanon, and Israel—with a fourth surrounding the Azores islands off the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Lastly, the Anglo-Celtic Isles are defined as their own subrealm with a uniquely mild climate influenced by the Gulf Stream.